— FAQ —


What is E-Power?

E-Power is an electromagnetic device that creates a counter-component for disturbances caused by electrical devices in the network.

E-Power is patented and proven system with the smart managed hybrid filter that improves the quality of all relevant electric parameters, protecting the load against the impact of the poor power quality. It is composed of the three-phase inductive filter which changes dynamically its filter impedance value adapting to its power absorption in order to improve power quality with electromagnetic conversion.

The key benefits or the E-Power technology are: 1) energy saving on total consumption 2) power factor improvement 3) improvement in energy transmission and line losses reduction 4) Voltage and current peak reduction 4) Reduction of the THD and reconfiguration of the harmonics contribution by improving the waverform 5) Real-time verification and monitoring of energy efficiency due to unique build-in configuration of the by-pass technology.

The equipment is practically passive since it consists mainly of inductors and reactive components and contactors and has almost no active electrical components except on the command board with the components such as analyzers, PLCs, 24Vds power supplies and similar.

Therefore, the internal losses are minimalistic mainly due to some iron and copper losses in the power part of the filter. In addition, those losses are further limited due to filter windings using aluminium.

The filtration of disturbances occurs in four levels; the level depends by the input voltage that enables the electromagnetic feedback loop of varying intensity.

The cleaner the waveform of current and voltage we can arrange to the network, the less resistance forces are generated on the loads and consequently saves energy. In other words, the forces against the engines will be reduced, providing benefits as reduced braking torque, reduced heat loss, reduced stress and extended lifespan.

Example of 3-phase asynchronous motor with an inverter. There are many kinds of inverters, the more expensive inverters are almost "pure sinewave inverters", and the cheaper versions resulting in a distorted waveform (i.e. negative sequence harmonics). The engine fed with the distorted waveform (i.e. negative sequence harmonics) vibrates and consumes approximately 15% more energy, because the negative sequence harmonics rotate in the opposite direction to the fundamental, acting against the direction of rotation resulting in torque pulsations, braking torque, heat loss, stress, premature failures and decrease lifespan.


What are the benefits on THD?

There are undoubted benefits in terms of the current harmonics, which we can't translate into a precise and reliable number because, let me repeat one more time, that the performance depends on the loads installed downstream of the E-Power system, so automatically the results vary from installation to installation. As far as THDV is concerned, there are much less benefits, if we look at it in the same way as for the THDI. We must, in this case, look at E-Power in a revolutionary way, understanding that thanks to its construction design, it has the ability to have part of the filter connected in series with the electrical system, acting almost like a reactor (often used in parallel with inverters to absorb harmonics) so as to absorb/attract voltage harmonics because it has a very low impedance compared to the electrical system. I'm sorry, but as a matter of professional ethics to give numbers would be misleading.


What does the power factor correction system/capasitor bank do?

• Mainly there are two types of power factor correction systems:

1. Automatic power factor correction system (modern technology): 

• This power factor correction system is capable of igniting capacitors quickly, in milliseconds thanks to electronic controls. 
• Usually installed because there is a lot of reactive power in the electrical system, also due to some devices that, when turned on, momentarily absorb a lot of reactive power (peaks). 
• This kind of device helps a lot to lower the reactive power. 
• Higher self-consumption than E-Power, higher maintenance and higher risk of faults due to harmonics in the electrical system. 

 2. Manual power factor correction system (obsolete technology): 

• The controller normally switches the capacitors every ten seconds, or this action is manual in certain models, so it is "too slow" for peaks. 
• Usually installed in most of the electrical environments where the reactive power is much more stable. 
• Higher self-consumption than E-Power, higher maintenance and higher risk of faults due to harmonics in the electrical system.
• Power factor correction are installed in parallel to the line but there are various types of installation: centralized, distributed, mixed, managing a specific group of loads.
 • To determine the size of power factor correction systems, at first sight, it would seem that complete power factor correction is the optimal solution, since it cancels the reactive power transmitted on the line. However, in normal industrial practice, partial power factor correction is always used for several reasons:

1. The benefit of power factor correction concerns the power distribution network and therefore, directly affects the energy supplier, while for the end user, power factor correction represents a cost, which should be kept as low as possible, compatibly with the constraints imposed by the energy supplier (therefore, efforts are made to keep the power of the power factor correction system low).
2. In the hypothetical case of complete power factor correction, a variation of the load or of the parameters of the electrical system may result in an overphased activity (capacitive load on the network), which is strongly penalized and prohibited by the energy supplier, since it causes dangerous overvoltages on the line. 3. The construction tolerances of the capacitors do not allow an extremely precise dimensioning of the banks.

• Economic savings due to less reactive energy being taken from the national grid, which avoids penalties in the electricity bill. • Voltage drops reduction along power lines.
• Increased transport capacity on power lines. 
 • Optimization of the sizing of the electrical system components (transformers, bus-bars, cables, etc.). 
 • If the resonance frequency of the whole network-capacitor is close to the frequency of the harmonics present in the network, the harmonics will be amplified, resulting in overvoltages. The resultant current will heat up the capacitor and the power supply cables, causing the overload protection to trip. Due to the presence of harmonics it is advisable to size the capacitors with an increase in the nominal current. 
 • To check whether there is a hazard of dangerous resonances, the short-circuit power of the network must be compared with the power of the capacitor bank. 
 • For overvoltage protection on the power factor correction system, oversized capacitors (i.e. 440V for 400V network) and harmonic filters (special reactors placed in series with the capacitors and suitably tuned with them to make the total reactance inductive), suitably sized according to the spectrum of harmonics present in the network, can be used to protect against overvoltage. 
 • Therefore, the resonance effect is a problem that for the power factor correction systems leads to an increase in the voltage harmonics in the network, and therefore, care must be taken to avoid a damaging impact on both, the power factor correction system and the network, while with the devices inside the E-Power system this problem does not exist.



What is the E-Power's impact on the power factor correction system?

The E-Power system helps and protects the power factor correction system. The power factor is composed from 2 types of power factors: 

 • Displacement power factor (power factor due to the phase shift, which is due to the inductance of an electrical load which makes sure that the absorbed current is lagging compared to voltage applied). 

 • Harmonic power factor (power factor due to harmonics, which is caused by switching of the applied voltage non-linear as in the case of rectifiers or power semiconductors). 

The real and true power factor is a combination of both and is linked to the two factors seen previously, one of phase shift, and the other of harmonic distortion. The formula here below is linking both power factor:

The E-Power system works mostly with the current waveform improvement and mitigation of THDI, which lead more benefits for the second type of power factor and the consequence is that we improve the total power factor, furthermore thanks to E-Power we can reduce the reactive energy that is connected to the power factor.

The electrical line is generally considered as an inductive type and its impedance increases as the frequency increases. Conversely, the impedance of the capacitors decreases as the frequency increases, and so the harmonic currents at higher frequencies with high probability flowing through the capacitors connected to the circuit.

The currents of increasing value generate higher voltages on the dielectric of the capacitors, and this can lead to excessive stress and premature failure.

With the addition of the E-Power can improve the performance of the capacitors and preserve their integrity thanks to the work of the E-Power on the waveform improvement and mitigation of THDI, decreasing the probability that the capacitor suffers an overloaded due to the harmonics produced by the electrical network and by the distorting loads (non-linear loads).

Usually, we detected a reduction of the reactive energy between 15%-25% with the E-Power system.

An unfavourable situation for the E-Power system is constituted by an electrical system with capacitive reactive power and a power factor of less than 0.95, usually present in environments where the load is mainly made up of a lot of electronics, such as, DPCs, communication antennas, etc.

In these cases, a more depth investigation is required to better identify the characteristics of the installed loads, so as to determine the power weight that the electronic loads, present in the above environments, have in relation to the peak power of the electrical system.

We suggest installing the E-Power system in electrical systems where the reactive power is inductive or in electrical systems where the reactive power is capacitive but with a power factor greater than 0.95.


How does the ventilation and self-consumption work?

Each electrical board must be ventilated to dissipate the heat produced by the electronics, and others, and for regulatory purposes, then you can choose natural or forced ventilation. The latter introduces greater self-consumption because fans or air conditioners are used, while natural ventilation uses the chimney effect and is the one used by the E-Power. For the E-Power system, we have small losses generated by the electronic devices in the control board (analyzers, PLCs, 24Vdc power supplies, etc.), and in the power board, we have to dissipate the small losses of the filter, such as iron losses and copper losses in the filter. These losses are also limited because the filter windings are in aluminium.

Maintaining adequate natural ventilation means keeping the functionality of the filter high and for longer.


How does the electromagnetic feedback loop work?

The electromagnetic induction varies, between the primary and secondary circuit, depending on the level of savings chosen; to trigger and modulate this electromagnetic feedback loop we need to trigger a voltage drop between the primary and secondary circuit.

This electromagnetic flow (feedback loop) in the filter, of varying intensity, generate benefits that can be modulated according to the selected savings level.


What are the conditions needed to evaluate the saving achievable?

- the network of loads (a group of several different electrical devices that work separately one from each other) consumes more energy than it needs to operate due to the interferences generated by the loads and on the electrical lines, so the E-Power system works on the facility where there are several loads (many Kirchhoff nodes) like we have in the factory on transformer 1.

- variable consumption on the way of working of the loads (power consumption is very irregular during the working period).

- presence of interferences and losses generated in the network. This condition is always present because, in each electrical network, there are losses on the electrical lines and the presence of electronic loads.


Why is the network of loads important? What is the impact of the E-Power?

The presence into the electrical network of electrical loads and electronic loads (non-linear loads) generate harmonics that interact with the impedance of the distribution system creating distortions, leakages and several problems to loads and higher consumption of energy. The E-Power system reconfigures the harmonics; in this manner, the E-Power system reduces losses and distortions. Acting on the harmonics can reduce the losses and therefore improve energy transport and decrease energy consumption.

Improving the harmonics distribution leads positive influences on the motors because the fixed stator placed in the outer part of an asynchronous motor has windings which are supplied with alternating current in order to generate a rotating magnetic field that is being chased by the rotor. Some harmonics, create a negative sequence that opposes the rotation of the field (especially those of Negative Sequence like 5th, 11th, 17th....). This can generate high losses in the motor with possible overheating leading to premature failures. It is simple to understand that thanks to the E-Power work, we can lead benefit also to this issue, which is, at the moment, not considered in our offer.

Moreover, the E-Power system improves the odd harmonics, especially those of current (Zero Sequence like 3rd, 9th, 15th, etc...), reducing the current on the neutral, which is, at the moment, not considered in our offer.

Acting on the harmonics through the use of E-Power can reduce the losses, therefore improves the waveforms, consequently the PF (Power Factor) that normally is associated to the cosphi.

So, the cosphi is improved thanks to the efficiency made to the downstream electrical system without any onboard capacitor.

IN THE END, DEPENDS FROM THE TYPE OF LOADS THAT ARE PRESENT INTO THE ELECTRICAL NETWORK BECAUSE IN SOME CASES WE SAW A GOOD TREATMENT FOR SOME HARMONICS, IN OTHER CASES FOR OTHER HARMONICS. AT THE END EVERY NETWORK OF LOADS IS DIFFERENT, AND THE E-POWER CAN ADAPT TO IT TO LEAD POSITIVE EFFECTS ON THE HARMONICS.

The E-Power system optimizes the energy flow to reduce losses, to reduce the peak of current and voltage, improving harmonics of current, improving the power factor and cosphi, reducing heat losses (due to Joule effect) on the electrical lines and thus optimizing the energy absorbed by the loads. In this way, the electrical system is more efficient, power absorbed is lower and thus electricity consumption too. Furthermore, loads will work better and therefore reduces their wear and extending the life cycle.

Attached a Laboratory Short Presentation from our joint laboratory with the University of Florence, Smart Energy Lab, where we carried out tests with the E-Power installed upstream of an electrical network consisting only of electronic loads. In the presentation, you will be able to appreciate the benefits of the E-Power system, which I remind you, have a scale at laboratory level that implies an amplification at a real level, i.e. in the field.


What are the measurement methods used?

Our measurement method is based on the patented technology of the Bypass system and the E-Controller system allows demonstrating in a scientific way the saving generated by the E-Power system.

This method has been validated by certifying bodies, Italian government agencies and various universities, taking into account the active power which is ultimately the global index of all the benefits brought by the E-Power system.

To better see the improvement of the Power Quality parameters, it is possible to carry out a further analysis with Dewesoft external analyzer, which has the sole purpose of seeing under the "microscope" the benefits on the Power Quality.

Attached there is a Dewesoft presentation and a 3-hour Dewesoft field analysis that clearly shows the benefits obtained from the E-Power system. Keep in mind that a Dewesoft report is only intended to analyze in detail the benefits of Power Quality, and therefore, we are talking about a qualitative report. Since the time horizon of execution is very limited, due to reasonable memory constraints, it does not have the same reliability in terms of energy savings results than the standard test over a period of 14 days following the IPMVP protocol, option C.

Here below the list of the parameters, we are usually going to detect and analyze with Dewesoft:


What are the effects of voltage reduction?

Dropping the voltage can not lead to any positive result. When there are non-linear loads, there is no effect from the voltage drop and even increase line losses; instead, when there are linear loads, there is a reduction of the work produced without generating any saving. To be much more precise, it all depends on the type of loads that are supplied downstream. Loads with electronics are insensitive to voltage reduction (if obviously, it oscillates within the permissible range), while linear loads result in a significant decrease in power (with a consequent decrease in the work done). Between these two extremes, there are all the other loads that do not fall directly into these two main categories.

I would say that on average, the effect of the 7% voltage reduction (operation at the 3rd level), has a direct effect on the saving of no more than 1%.

Here below, the test with a small 3/5 A E-Power and switching power supply (non-linear loads) where there is no need of an explanation since it's evident the increase of line losses when voltage is simply reduced:

Here below, the conclusion of the effects of the sole voltage reduction:

  1. Voltage dependent loads (linear loads like conventional lighting): relevant saving with a consequent reduction of output work (lux reduction).
  2. Resistive loads: saving obtainable only on resistive loads which are not controlled by power electronic circuits; on these loads the saving generates a proportional reduction of «work».
  3. Asynchronous motors no VSD: very low saving (<1%) if the motors are working close to the nominal power (>75%), whit a consequent slight reduction in motor efficiency, which translates into a very small saving in terms of power but at the expense of reduced work.
  4. VSD motors: no saving (non voltage dependent loads).
  5. Non-linear loads (controlled by electronic circuit): no saving (non voltage dependent loads).

The mere reduction of voltage leads to an increase in line losses as shown by laboratory tests and comparisons made. The increase in line losses is also evident in a situation where the E-Power is transparent(Bypass mode). The lab measurement was carried out in an environment where the line losses are very small in proportion to a real network, so the increase in line losses due to voltage reduction only, are amplified when it is applied in a real network.


How does the E-Power improve the current waveform?

Furthermore, in attached the SCIENTIFIC REPORT from the University of Florence, exactly in chapter 3, you can see some electrical phenomena improved when using the E-Power device.

Modifying the voltage and current waveforms leads to obtain an improvement of the power waveform, as a result.

The E-Power significantly improves the current waveform because this is the only way to optimize the non-linear loads (electronic loads with stabilized power), which aren't sensitive to voltage changes.


Why should you consider installing the e-power system?

To conclude, I suggest considering the E-Power system as a series installation upstream of the line of a unique, patented and innovative technology, for these reasons:

  • Energy Efficiency
  • Reduction of interruptions/outages/downtimes
  • Lifespan increase of the loads
  • Preservation and extended lifespan of the electrical network
  • Negative sequence harmonics reduction
  • Zero sequence harmonics reduction
  • Improvement of current and voltage waveform
  • Crest factor reduction
  • Power factor improvement
  • Reactive power reduction
  • Reduction of losses
  • Protection for the transformer (less harmonics and less use)
  • E-Power also acts as a reactance in parallel to the frame but upstream of the entire system and therefore works to draw harmonics into the primary circuit, purifying the power grid. The same technology is applied to the power panels containing the inverters; the reactance serves to reduce the harmonic contribution generated by the inverters.
  • Then there are all the other benefits, such as energy saving, reduction of interruptions/outages/downtimes and extension of the average life of the loads.